Παχυσαρκία: Αίτια, Επακόλουθα & Χειρουργική Αντιμετώπιση Παχυσαρκίας

As morbid obesity is defined the relationship of height and weight, which is called body mass index (BMI) and is calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by height (in meters) squared.

 

#Title
NORMAL WEIGHT BMI BETWEEN 18-25
OVERWEIGHT BMI BETWEEN 25-30
OBESITY BMI 30-35
MORBID OBESITY BMI> 35 (WITH AT LEAST 2 CONCOMITANT SYMPTOMS)
MORBID OBESITY BMI > 40 ( WITHOUT CONCOMITANT SYMPTOM)

 

 

According to the World Health Organization (OMS) it is a disease

Pathological consequences of obesity:

·       Diabetes mellitus type 2 :

Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 because of the occurrence of resistance to insulin. Without treatment, the diabetes complications involving blood vessels, kidneys and eyes are mathematically definite.

·       Arterial hypertension and cardiovascular problems:

The excessive weight requires an increased blood pressure to send blood to all organs. Hypertension causes damage to the heart and the blood vessels, especially to the ones of brain and kidneys.

·       Problems in joints:

The joints cannot withstand for a long time the weight gain and are progressively destroyed. The result is the appearance of arthritis, which is installed in the vertebral column, the hip and the knees.

·       Respiratory disorders:

Asthma and dyspnea on exertion are very common disorders of obese. The syndrome of Alveolar Sleep Hypoventilation is a serious obesity complication, because during sleep breathing stops and oxygen supplied to organism is reduced.

·       Cholelithiasis:

The bile supersaturated with cholesterol becomes lithogenic with an increased risk of complications such as cholecystitis or pancreatitis.

·       Gastroesophageal reflux:

It is favored by diaphragmal distension and intraventricular pressure increase due to thickness. The result of regression is esophagitis, which is chemical burn of esophagus requiring specific treatment.

·       Infertility and menstrual irregularities:

The excessive fat gain increases the level of estrogen and causes menstrual irregularities, infertility and also increases the incidence of certain cancers such as breast and uterine

·       Urinary incontinence :

It is favored by ventriculoperitoneal overpressure.

·       Depression:

It is the result of chronic symptoms, diet failure and of acquired poor self-image in obese patients.

·      Socio- family exclusion.

Obesity and body image connected to, causes difficulty in seeking employment, in career development, the sartorial choices e.t.c.

Today, the greek legislation via public funds supports the effort of weight loss through surgical procedure.

 

 

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF OBESITY INTERVENTIONS

 

INTERVENTIONS GASTRIC BANDING SLEEVE  

DUODENAL

SWITCH

 

MECHANISM OF ACTION REDUCTION OF FOOD QUANTITY REDUCTION OF FOOD QUANTITY & REDUCTION OF GHRELIN  

·       REDUCTION OF FOOD QUANTITY

·       REDUCTION OF GHRELIN

·       ABSORPTION REDUCTION

SURGICAL DANGER EXTREMELY SMALL EXTREMELY SMALL  

EXTREMELY SMALL

BY EXPERIENCED HANDS

AVERAGE WEIGHT LOSS ΙΝ 5 ΥΕΑRS 50%-60% 60%-70% 65%-80%
DISORDERS  

·         GASTRIC POUCH DILATATION

·         STOMACH CORROSION (RARE)

·         SMALL IRON DEFICIENCY

 

·  SMALL IRON DEFICIENCY

·   GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX

 

·       DEFICIENCIES IN VITAMINS

A, D, E, B12

·       DEFICIENCY IN

IRON

CALCIUM, ALBUMINATES

·       CHOLELITHIASIS

·       DIARRHEAS